Renan Maximilian Lovato1 & João Luiz Vitorino Araujo1,2 & 6 Vinícius Monteiro de Paula Guirado1 & José Carlos Esteves Veiga1

Professor Mahmut Gazi Yasargil was born in Lice, Tur- 11 key, on July 6th, 1925, and moved with his family to 12 Ankara at the age of 3 months old [1, 2]. During his 13 childhood, he lost his brother Ihsan having succumbed 14 to abdominal typhus; this unfortunate event inspired him 15 and his brothers to study medicine [1]. 16 In the winter of 1943, he arrived in Naumburg an der Saale, 17 Germany, where he served 6 months as a nurse-helper before 18 beginning his medical studies [1]. Later, he began to study at 19 the Friedrich von Schiller University in Jena but was obliged 20 to leave Jena in April 1945 by the end phase of World War II. 21 Soon, he was accepted at the University of Basel [1, 2], where 22 he had his first contact with microsurgery performing 23 transpalatinal exploration of the hypophysis in frogs for a 24 research [1]. On January 4th, 1953, he began his training in 25 neurosurgery in Zürich with Professor Hugo Krayenbül [1, 2], 26 where he studied neuroanatomy and helped to introduce ste- 27 reotactic and epilepsy procedures. 28 In October 1965, Dr Yasargil began his training in vascular 29 microsurgery in Burlington, USA [1, 2]. He was 40 years old and already had 13 years of experience in classic neuro- 30 surgical procedures [3]. On December 3rd, 1966, he 31 started working on dog’s middle cerebral arteries and in 32 the next day on basilar artery, and he considers this as 33 the birth of microneurosurgery [1, 4]. He also developed 34 the technique for transplantation of the superficial tem- 35 poral artery to the middle cerebral artery by end-to-side 36 anastomosis [2, 4]. During this time, he also started 37 working with bipolar coagulation, created a few years 38 earlier by Len Malis [1, 3]. In this period, he started to 39 travel around the USA organizing meetings to divulgate 40 and integrate new techniques in microsurgery, which be- 41 gan a series of microneurosurgical courses around the 42 world in the next years [1, 3]. 43 In 1967, he began the microneurosurgery routine in Zürich, 44 performing 103 operations in the first year [1]; the number 45 soon increased, and the outcomes have been published in the 46 six volumes of the book Microneurosurgery [2, 3]. 47 At the end of 1972, he was elected as chairman of the 48 Q3 department of neurosurgery in Zürich and succeeded his 49 teacher on April 15th, 1973, until his retirement in 1993 50 [1]. In April 1993, Professor Ossama Al-Mefty invited 51 him to join the neurosurgical department of the Univer- 52 sity of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in Little Rock [1, 53 5]. On November 2nd, 1994, Professor Yasargil per- 54 formed his first operation and there kept working for 55 the next years [3]. 56 In 1999, he was honored as “Man of the Century 57 1950–2000” by the journal Neurosurgery at the Congress 58 of Neurological Surgeons Annual Meeting [2, 6] and The 59 European Association of Neurological Surgeons Medal of 60 Honor [6]. 61 His ingenuity in developing microsurgical techniques 62 for use in cerebrovascular neurosurgery has trans- 63 formed the outcomes of patients with conditions that 64 * João Luiz Vitorino Araujo Renan Maximilian Lovato Vinícius Monteiro de Paula Guirado José Carlos Esteves Veiga 1 Q2 Discipline of Neurosurgery, Santa Casa de São Paulo Medical School, Cesário Mota Júnior Street, 122, Vila Buarque, 01221-020 São Paulo, SP, Brazil 2 Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho Cancer Institute, São Paulo, Brazil Indian J Surg DOI 10.1007/s12262-015-1421-6 JrnlID 12262_ArtID 1421_Proof# 1 – 11/12/2015 UNCORRECTED PROOF 65 were previously inoperable [2]. He conceived microsur- 66 gical instruments, retractors, floating microscope, and 67 aneurysm clips [2, 4]. Every neurosurgical procedure 68 performed today has been affected by his work [4]. In 2015, we celebrate Yasargil’s 90th birthday, and 69 nowadays, he works at the Yeditepe University in Is- 70 tanbul and is still participating in microneurosurgery 71 courses, which he created, held annually in the univer- 72 sity [7]